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Economist Michael Walden relied on existing research to make several significant points in his study of the school district’s fiscal impact.

In making the point about lower public costs for crime control and health care for high school graduates than for high school dropouts, he relied on the following:

  • “The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports” by Lance Lochner and Moretti Enrico, American Economic Review, March 2004; and
  • “Healthier and Wealthier: Decreasing Health Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment,” Alliance for Excellent Education issue brief, November 2006.

In stating the case that home buyers prefer to locate in communities with better-quality schools and are willing to pay a higher price to live in such locations, he relied on these recent studies:

  • “Nonlinear Effects of School Quality on House Prices” by Abbigail J. Chiodo, Rubén Hernández-Murillo and Michael T. Owyang, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, May/June 2010;
  • “School Quality and Residential Property Values: Evidence from Vancouver Rezoning” by John Ries and Tsur Somerville, The Review of Economics and Statistics, November 2010; and
  • “Educational Outcomes and House Values: A Test of the Value-Added Approach” by David Brasington and Donald R. Haurin, Journal of Regional Science, 2006, vol. 46(2), p. 245-268.
  • A full version of Walden’s study, “The Economic Impact of the Virginia Beach City Public School System,” can be accessed at www.vbschools.com/administration/Lowdown/pdfs/virginiabeachstudy.pdf.


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