Additional Resources

Readers may find it helpful to access resources that promote the K-8 elemiddle school and those that endorse the middle school concept.

“Speaking With One Voice: A Manifesto for Middle-Grades Reform” by Joan Lipsitz, M. Hayes Mizell, Anthony W. Jackson and Leah Meyer Austin, Phi Delta Kappan, March 1997. Access at

“Grade-Span Configurations: Where 6 th and 7 th Grades Are Assigned May Influence Student Achievement, Research Suggests” by Craig B. Howley, The School Administrator, March 2002. Access at

“Grade Span Does Make a Difference,” by David Hough and others, December 2004 policy brief. Access from Institute for School Improvement, Southwest Missouri State University,

“R 3 = Research, Rhetoric, and Reality: A Study of Studies” by David Hough, October 2003, National Middle School Association,

“The (Limited) Evidence Regarding Effects of Grade-Span Configurations on Academic Achievement: What Rural Educators Should Know,” ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, August 2002. Access at

“Strength in the Middle: New Grade Configurations Won’t Improve the Education of Young Adolescents” by Sue Swaim, Education Week, April 21, 2004. Access at

“This We Believe: Successful Schools for Young Adolescents,” 2003 position statement, available from NMSA,

Research and Resources in Support of This We Believe , available from National Middle School Association,